Well, let's focus on the weapons first. You have 3 distinct weapon types, beams, turrets and torps. This spreads your Boff skills around as you try to cycle FaW or BO with Turret skills and torp skills. You have some DPS forward, some to the sides and some to the rear, but nothing that brings all 8 weapons to target at once.
Consider a beam cruiser. Beams forward and back and all 8 can hit in an arch to the left and right. If two of the rear are Omni beams, 6 beams can even be brought to the front of the ship. The same Boff skills like FaW and BO affect all the weapons as well. This ships tend to be cruisers as they struggle to bring the front of the ship around in time to engage all forward weapons.
Consider turret ships. All Cannons up front and turrets in the rear so there is a huge amount of DPS in the forward arch and at least the 4 turrets for side and rear point defense of fights and large torps. Again, there is a focus on Boff skills ranging from single target and multi target. Escorts, Destroyers and some Battle Cruisers will use this setup as they can bring to bear the nose of the ship to focus everything. There was even a time that this game was referred to Escorts online because this was so strong, but changes in beams have resulted in beams being consistently higher DPS.
Consider Torp boats. I can't speak to this topic as well as I've only built one many years ago, but from what I've read, they tend to be popular in science vessels and would focus on Boff skills that work with Torps. I know that I occasonally will carry a torp in a rear slot of a cruiser or escort to deal that last pop on a target that I've passed and reduced shields to zero, but I'm more inclined to just fill the slot with another beam or turret as well.
I've not flown the ship you are in and I don't know what your preference is so I won't make a recommendation on which you should pick, but I would recommend you pick one and stick to it, get your Boffs the skills to match that set and you should a decent improvement in DPS you deliver.
As for defense. None of your modules are really offering you any defense. Start working on a reputation line to get a decent set of Reputation space gear got the D/E/C/S. You likely got better stuff as some of your later mission runs that gave set bonuses like the Breen and Jem'Hadr.
Check your traits as well to insure you are getting some space traits that give you advantages in defense at least until you can get the better Deflectors, Engines, Cores and Shields that offer native boosts to hull and shield, etc.
Oh, and you should have some Boff skills that do shield and hull repairs, like Engineering Team and Power to Shields. Also, drop a couple of those turrets in your devices and get shield and weapon batteries.
Thanks for the advice, i'll post back again later when i've tried a new setup like what you've suggested
Hello Phaze, I agree with all of what kjfett said about builds but I think theres a bit more that could be added to that. I start with getting a notion of what I want that captains and their ships roles to be dps, tank, or support. This helps inform all other decisions in the game regarding training, ship selection, and gear. For instance a tank will focus on survivability over dps, so as a captain you'd focus on damage mitigation and control over weapon skills in your build, you'd tend to choose more repair skills than weapon buffs for your boffs, you'd likely choose a heavy cruiser over an escort to support this, and one space set might work better for tanking than another etc. Just food for thought.